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Übersicht über die Fakultätskolloquien und Festveranstaltungen seit Dezember 2010

2017


Fakultätskolloquium

29.5.2017
16:15-18 Uhr,
Hörsaal 4, Carl-Zeiß-Str. 3


Vortragender: Prof. Dr. Ulrich Brose (iDiv/FSU Jena, Institut für Ökologie, Lehrstuhl Biodiversitätstheorie)

Thema: Body-masses, food-web structure, animal diversity and ecosystem functioning

Zusammenfassung:

The distribution of body masses across species in general and the scaling of resource body mass with consumer body mass in particular have strong implications for food-web structure, community stability and ecosystem functioning. In this talk, I will present a novel global data base on consumer and resource body masses, which was compiled based on the collaboration among a global group of food-web scientists. The data allows unprecedented analyses of consumer-resource body-mass relationships across different interaction types (predators and herbivores), ecosystem types, movement types and species' metabolic categories. Together, these analyses provide deepened insight into the body-mass structure of natural communities and their consequences for the network structure of food webs.

These principles of food-web structures are used to formulate generic network models using consumer and resource body mass distributions as the only input parameter. These network models are used to predict the consequences of varying the diversity of animal consumers for different ecosystem functions (primary productivity, herbivory, predation, carbon respiration). Prior studies suggested that increasing animal diversity can lead to higher primary productivity via trophic cascades or to lower primary productivity if intra-guild predation dampens the top-down pressure on plants. In the food-web simulations, we found that despite higher intraguild predation in more diverse animal communities, both the exploitation rates on plants and the animal community biomass increased. Unexpectedly, this did not negatively affect the plant community biomass because of a dynamic adjustment of the community body-size structure, which exhibited a shift towards larger, and thus energetically more efficient, species in more diverse communities. The plasticity of community body-size structure reconciles the debate on the consequences of animal species loss on primary productivity.


Fakultätskolloquium


27.4.2017
16:15-18 Uhr,
Hörsaal 6, Carl-Zeiß-Str. 3


Vortragender: Dr. Helen Morrison (Leibniz-Institut für Alternsforschung - Fritz-Lipmann-Institut e.V. (FLI))

Thema: Nervous System Ageing: Healing and Tumour Formation

Zusammenfassung:

My lab is interested in the nature of cell communication, and the mis-wiring of signalling pathways in disease and in the aging process. We focus on age dependent signalling impairments underlying nervous system maintenance and regeneration, and in disease mechanisms for disorders of myelinating cells and nervous system tumours. These disease areas represent a great medical need and our work aims to perform translational work in each area. We use a multidisciplinary approach that includes in vitro, cellular and mouse models.

My seminar will address cellular and molecular pathways that are used to ensure effective nervous system maintenance and repair and discuss the contributing mechanisms that deteriorate during aging. Focusing on the peripheral nervous system I will include investigations on the plasticity of the Schwann cell differentiation state; research on the Schwann cell and axonal interactions and deregulation of this signalling circuit leading to impaired nerve maintenance and injury-induced regeneration.  Moreover I will show that the failure of the Schwann/axon circuit limiting nerve maintenance and repair also increases cancer risk.


Fakultätskolloquium

19. Januar 2017
16:15-18 Uhr,
Hörsaal 7, Carl-Zeiß-Str. 3


Vortragender: PD Dr. habil. Gottfried Jetschke

Thema: Dendrochronologie: Was uns Jahrringe von Bäumen über die Vergangenheit (und Zukunft) erzählen

Zusammenfassung:

Zuerst wird eine Reihe klar formulierbarer Annahmen vorgestellt, auf denen die Dendrochronologie als Wissenschaft beruht. Daraus werden Methoden abgeleitet, mit denen Jahrringe von Bäumen erhalten und analysiert werden. Die vorgestellten Anwendungen umfassen die Abhängigkeit des jährlichen Wachstums von Temperatur und Niederschlag für ausgewählte Baumarten (Eiche, Esche und Schwarzkiefer), die Wachstumsreduktion durch Luftschadstoffe (am Beispiel der Weißtanne) und die Datierung historischer Hölzer (am Beispiel eines Wasserrohres aus Jena-Drackendorf). Einige Schlussfolgerungen für nachhaltige Forstwirtschaft unter Klimawandel werden genannt.


Dendrochronology: What tree rings can tell us about the past (and the future)

Dendrochronology as a science is based upon a series of well-defined assumptions, which will be introduced first. Then methods will be derived which are necessary for preparation and analysis of tree ring samples. The applications presented cover the relationship between annual growth and temperature and precipitation for selected tree species (oak, ash, black pine), the suppression of growth by air pollutants (exemplified by silver fir) and the dating of historical wood samples (exemplified by a wooden water pipe from Jena-Drackendorf). Consequences for sustainable forest management under climate change are mentioned.

2016

Fakultätskolloquium

Donnerstag, den 8. Dezember 2016
16:15-18 Uhr, Hörsaal 7, Carl-Zeiß-Str. 3


Vortragender: Dr. Falk Hillmann (Junior Research Group Evolution of Microbial Interactions, Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology - Hans Knöll Institute (HKI), Jena)

Thema: Interaction of fungi with predatory amoeba - an evolutionary training ground for pathogens?

Zusammenfassung:

The virulence potential of many fungi has partially been attributed to their intrinsic resistance to the innate immune system. More specifically, these fungi have developed sophisticated mechanisms to either escape from or withstand the killing mechanisms of human phagocytes. How free-living fungi, such as the mold Aspergillus fumigatus or environmental yeasts could have evolved such multifactorial virulence strategies effective against animals and humans is not well understood.
We hypothesized that in their natural habitats fungi are constantly exposed to microbial predators throughout their evolutionary history and since well before the emergence of innate immunity. We could show that phagocytic interactions between the soil amoeba, Dictyostelium discoideum and A. fumigatus showed striking similarities to encounters with macrophages. To further expand our model and to demonstrate that such predatory interactions actually occur in natural habitats, we have recently isolated and identified Protostelium fungivorum, an amoeba species which feeds exclusively on fungi including most Candida species, but also kills filamentous fungi such as A. fumigatus. I will present our first insights to the highly efficient killing mechanisms of this amoeba and how these could have imposed selection pressure to develop virulence determinants.
      
The virulence potential of many fungi has partially been attributed to their intrinsic resistance to the innate immune system. More specifically, these fungi have developed sophisticated mechanisms to either escape from or withstand the killing mechanisms of human phagocytes. How free-living fungi, such as the mold Aspergillus fumigatus or environmental yeasts could have evolved such multifactorial virulence strategies effective against animals and humans is not well understood.
We hypothesized that in their natural habitats fungi are constantly exposed to microbial predators throughout their evolutionary history and since well before the emergence of innate immunity. We could show that phagocytic interactions between the soil amoeba, Dictyostelium discoideum and A. fumigatus showed striking similarities to encounters with macrophages. To further expand our model and to demonstrate that such predatory interactions actually occur in natural habitats, we have recently isolated and identified Protostelium fungivorum, an amoeba species which feeds exclusively on fungi including most Candida species, but also kills filamentous fungi such as A. fumigatus. I will present our first insights to the highly efficient killing mechanisms of this amoeba and how these could have imposed selection pressure to develop virulence determinants.
      

Fakultätskolloquium

Donnerstag, den 14. April 2016
16:15-18 Uhr, Hörsaal 6, Carl-Zeiß-Str. 3


Vortragender: PD Dr. Rudolf Seising (Vertretung der Professur für Geschichte der Naturwissenschaften an der Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena und LS Wissenschaftsgeschichte an der LMU München)

Thema:  Biologisch inspirierte "Digital Science" - Eine wissenschaftshistorische Betrachtung am Beispiel der "Evolutionsstrategien"

Zusammenfassung:

Die Wissenschaft im digitalen Zeitalter wird auch als "Digital Science" bezeichnet. Dies verweist zum einen auf die allgegenwärtige Computerunterstützung, zum anderen aber auch auf die zunehmend auch selbständig zur Problemlösung agierende Digitaltechnik. Nach einigen einordnenden Reflexionen wird die Geschichte der Evolutionsstrategie in Deutschland als Beispiel technischer Forschung im Übergang von "Human" Science zu "Digital Science" vorgestellt.

Die "Evolutionsstrategie" wurde 1964 von den damaligen Berliner Luftfahrtstudenten an der TU Berlin Ingo Rechenberg, Hans-Paul Schwefel und Peter Bienert entwickelt und auf einer wissenschaftlichen Tagung in Berlin vorgestellt.
Diese drei Studenten traten damals als erste mit dem Vorschlag auf, Prinzipien der biologischen Evolution als Mustervorlagen zur Entwicklung von Optimierungsprogrammen und -algorithmen zu betrachten und in der Technik einzusetzen.


2015

Fakultätskolloquium

Mittwoch, den 9. Dezember 2015
16:15 Uhr, Hörsaal 5, Carl-Zeiß-Str. 3


Vortragender: Aleš Svatoš (Research Group Mass Spectrometry/Proteomics, Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology Jena)

Thema: "Mass spectrometric imaging of plants, insects and bacteria: looking for semiochemicals"

Zusammenfassung:

Understanding of cellular structure of whole organism or organs was achieved in past by optical microscopy accompanied with a specific staining. Nowadays fluorescence microscopy can even resolve subcellular structures. Alternatively, infrared and Raman microscopy can beside the morphological information provide insight on chemical classes of molecules abundant in cells.
Mass spectrometry (MS) is one of the most sensitive analytical methods available today with a wide range of attainable analytes from simple ions to large proteins or their complexes with DNA. MS data can provide information on molecular composition and if tandem MS is performed we can predict molecular structure of the analyte in question.
Performing measurement of MS spectra from many spots of the sample enable constructing chemical maps of abundance for all masses we are able to resolve. This method, named MS imaging (MSI), enhance information on cellular organization with a chemical contrast and identify even low-abundant compounds as semiochemicals on/in organisms.
In my lecture I will summarize our research on MSI of plants, insects and bacteria focusing on deciphering chemical structure of semiochemicals and their spatial distributions on studied samples. These data were correlated with biological observations and on many cases lead to new insights to chemical ecology.


Fakultätskolloquium

Öffentlicher Vortrag im Rahmen des Umhabilitationsverfahrens


Mittwoch, den 18.11.2015

16:15 Uhr, Hörsaal Am Planetarium 1


Vortragender: Dr. habil. Markus Bernhardt-Römermann (Institut für Ökologie, FSU Jena)

Thema: "Veränderung von Waldökosystemen in den letzten Jahrzehnten - Lokale und globale Einflussfaktoren"

Zusammenfassung:

Die krautige Waldvegetation wird vor allem durch forstwirtschaftliches Management, Wildverbiss, Nährstoffeinträge, und in jüngerer Zeit auch den Klimawandel beeinflusst. Vergleicht man historische mit heutigen Vegetationsaufnahmen, können Veränderungen erkannt werden und Rückschlüsse auf die Bedeutung der einzelnen Umweltfaktoren gezogen werden.

Im Rahmen dieses Vortrags werden verschiedene Studien vorgestellt, die zum einen auf lokaler Ebene mit Hilfe von funktionellen Merkmalsanalysen die Veränderung in der Vegetationszusammensetzung erklären. Zum anderen wird durch Analysen auf europäischer Skala gezeigt, inwieweit sich durch die Kombination mehrerer lokaler Untersuchungen generelle Trends erkennen lassen. In diesem Zusammenhang wird auch die Forschungsplattform "forestREplot" vorgestellt, die zum Ziel hat, alle global verfügbaren Wiederholungsaufnahmen aus temperaten Wäldern zusammenzutragen und gemeinsam auszuwerten.


Fakultätskolloquium

Donnerstag, 29. Oktober 2015

16:15 Uhr, Hörsaal 7, Carl-Zeiß-Str. 3


Vortragender:  Prof. Dr. Aria Baniahmad (Institut für Humangenetik, Arbeitsgruppe Molekulargenetik, Universitätsklinikum, FSU Jena)

Thema: "Induction of cellular senescence in human prostate cancer cells by targeting the androgen receptor."

Zusammenfassung:
Prostate cancer is an important age-related disease increasing strongly and disproportionately high with age. Prostate cancer
is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in males and the second leading cause of cancer mortality of men in western countries. The male sexual hormones, the Androgens, are essential for the development of the normal prostate, which is important for reproduction. Androgens promote also the growth of the normal prostate and interestingly also initially the growth of prostate cancer.

Androgens, such as testosterone or dihydrotestosterone, mediate their effects through the Androgen Receptor. This Receptor is a member of the steroid hormone receptor gene family. Some mutations in the gene of the Androgen Receptor can lead to complete feminization underlying the importance for normal male development. Androgens bind to and activate the Androgen Receptor.

Since the activated Androgen Receptor stimulates prostate cancer cell proliferation and progression, the inhibition of the Androgen Receptor is the main strategy of PCa hormone therapy. This is usually achieved by androgen ablation and treatment with receptor antagonists (antiandrogens).

The first natural antiandrogen was identified in our group from an African plant used against prostatitis. We have isolated fractionated and characterized a novel antiandrogen and revealed that this novel compound induces cellular senescence in human prostate cancer cells and in patient cancer tissues. Senescent cells lack cell proliferation. This allows for the first time an explanation how antiandrogens inhibit prostate cancer growth.


Fakultätskolloquium


Donnerstag, 18. Juni 2015

16:15 Uhr, Hörsaal 6, Carl-Zeiß-Str. 3

Vortragender:  Prof. Dr. Thomas Winckler (Institut für Pharmazie, Pharmazeutische Biologie, FSU Jena).

Thema: "Genomic parasites of social amoebae - How to survive in a compact genome?"

Zusammenfassung:

Transposable elements are found in virtually all organisms and play central roles in shaping their host's genomes. The amplification of these genomic parasites is a constant threat to host fitness due to the intrinsic process of integration into the genomic DNA that can cause mutagenesis of genes and force illegitimate recombinations between distant transposon copies. Haploid and gene-dense genomes like those of the Dictyostelid social amoebae are nice models to study the coevolution of host cells with their genomic parasites. Because transposons are confronted with a high risk of jeopardizing host genome stability and eliminating themselves along with their host, they are under selective pressure to invent strategies to avoid direct damage to the host by insertional mutagenesis. A process of convergent evolution is observed in the genome of the model species Dictyostelium discoideum that has repeatedly generated the selection of tRNA genes as probable "safe homes" for retrotransposons. In my talk I will summarize what we have learned so far about the molecular mechanims that Dictyostelium retrotransposons use to identify tRNA genes as integration sites. From the perspective of pharmaceutical drug development, studying molecular mechanisms of site-specific integration in non-human model organisms may promote human gene therapy through the design of specifically integrating gene transfer vectors with low intrinsic genotoxic potential.


Fakultätskolloquium



Donnerstag, 28. Mai 2015

16:15 Uhr, Hörsaal 6, Carl-Zeiß-Str. 3

Vortragender:  Prof. Dr. Axel Brakhage (Leibniz-Institut für Naturstoff-Forschung und Infektionsbiologie e. V.-Hans-Knöll-Institut, Jena).

Thema: "Infektionsbiologie und Biotechnologie human-pathogener Pilze"/"Infection biology and biotechnology of human-pathogenic fungi"

Zusammenfassung:

The dramatic increase of multiresistant bacteria has triggered an intense search for new antibiotics. Most of these compounds are low-molecular-weight natural products, which are important for intercellular communication. Genome mining efforts indicate that the capability of fungi to produce natural products has been substantially underestimated. Many of their biosynthesis gene clusters are silent under standard cultivation conditions. By genetic engineering, we could activate such silent gene clusters, which led to the production of novel compounds. Furthermore, we have discovered that communication between microorganisms represents a physiological trigger for activation of such silent fungal gene clusters. The physical interaction of the fungus Aspergillus nidulans with the soil-dwelling bacterium Streptomyces rapamycinicus, led to the selective activation of silent gene clusters. The bacterium is able to reprogram the fungus by manipulation of its chromatin modification. Knowledge of these regulatory interactions will pave the way to a novel avenue to drug discovery through targeted activation of silent gene clusters.

At the same time fungi can cause life-threatening diseases of humans. Aspergillus fumigatus is the most important air-borne fungal pathogen. A lack of reliable diagnostic tools and effective treatment options results in high mortality rates despite therapy. In my group, we aim at identifying pathogenicity determinants and mechanisms how A. fumigatus can overcome the response of immune effector cells. For this purpose we apply dual transcriptome and (immune)proteome analyses including systems biological analyses with subsequent generation of deletion mutants and their analysis in interaction assays with immune cells like neutrophilic granulocytes and alveolar macrophages and their testing in a mouse infection model. We found that A. fumigatus has developed immune evasion mechanisms which interfere at different levels of the infection process with the response of the human host. These include the prevention of recognition of conidia by special surface molecules, modulation of phagocytosis, intracellular processing, neutrophil extracellular trap formation, and complement activation. Furthermore, we have been working in the identification of fungus-specific T cells that can be used for diagnosis.

References: Bacher et al. (2015) Amer. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.; Gsaller et al. (2014) EMBO J.; Scharf et al. (2014) PLoS Pathogens; Brakhage (2013) Nature Rev Microbiol; Aimanianda et al. (2009) Nature; Nützmann et al. (2011) PNAS


Fakultätskolloquium

Mittwoch, 18. März 2015

16:15 Uhr, Hörsaal 7, Carl-Zeiß-Str. 3

Vortragender:  Prof. Jonathan Gershenzon (Max Planck Institute of Chemical Ecology, Jena).

Thema: "Multikulti metabolism: How and why plants create metabolic diversity."


Zusammenfassung:

We often hear that multiculturalism is good for our society because bringing together people of diverse cultures creates a climate of exchange, tolerance and innovation. Plants have been enjoying the benefits of diversity for millions of years, at least on the metabolic level. They produce a much greater variety of low molecular weight chemical compounds, usually referred to as secondary metabolites or natural products, than most other groups of organisms on the planet. I will describe some recent research from my department directed at understanding what generates the huge diversity of plant natural products and why it exists.
Plants have evolved a number of strategies for synthesizing a diversity of metabolites by use of pathways involving repeated addition of core units, enzymes that make multiple products and enzymes that have low substrate specificity when catalyzing later steps of the pathway. These strategies will be illustrated with examples drawn from glucosinolate and terpene biosynthesis. The majority of plant natural products are thought to function in protection against herbivores and pathogens as defensive weapons or signals. I will explore some reasons for why plants might possess a large variety of defensive weapons using glucosinolate hydrolysis products as an example.


2014

Fakultätskolloquium



Donnerstag, 13.11.2014

16.15-18 Uhr, Hörsaal 7, Carl-Zeiß-Str. 3

Vortragender: Herr PD Dr. Steffen Kolb (Institut für Ökologie, FSU Jena)

Thema: "Terrestrial Microbiomes - Unveiling a Sink of Atmospheric Volatile Organic Compounds"


Zusammenfassung:

Methanol is the second most abundant organic molecule in the atmosphere. The main source of atmospheric methanol is plant material. Methanol oxidation by aerobic microorganisms in soils is a not well evaluated global sink in the methanol cycle. Methanol consumers reduce methanol emission by its consumption in the rhizosphere and phyllosphere, and recent reports suggest that soil communities are also be capable of uptake of methanol from the atmosphere.  Aerobic methylotrophs use methanol as a source of carbon and energy by diverse set of enzymes and enzymatic pathways. Previous own work revealed that GL1 and GL2 (genotypes affiliated with Alphaproteobacteria) responded to methanol concentrations that that would explain methanol deposition from the atmosphere into soil. In six grassland and six forest soils, environmental factors were identified that influenced the methylotroph community structure based on functional gene markers (mxaF, xoxF, mch, fae). Thus, vegetation type (forest or grassland), soil pH, the availability of nitrogen and substrate concentration likely determine which methylotroph taxa are involved in the flux of methanol from aerated soils of temperate ecosystems. Alternative multi carbon substrate are a potential environmental factors that determine presence and activity of methanol utilizers in in soil. Using nucleic acid stable isotope probing (SIP), proteobacterial and actinobacterial methanol-utilizers were identified as sinks for methanol in temperate soil. A first time proof was retrieved that yeasts (Ascomycota, Basidiomycota) are as well considerable sinks of methanol in these systems. Thus, our recent results suggest a broad still not fully accessable diversity of methanol utilizers in soil and phyllosphere. Based on these findings, future strategies to scale up these lab-scale observations to ecosystem-level will be discussed.

Fakultätskolloquium

Mittwoch, 22.10.2014

14.15-16 Uhr, Hörsaal 7, Carl-Zeiß-Str. 3

Vortragende: Frau PD Dr. Birgit Spänkuch (Zentrum für Molekulare Biomedizin, FSU Jena)

Thema: "The role of polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) for the cell cycle of cancer and primary cells."


Zusammenfassung:

Human polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1), a key component of mitotic progression, is over-expressed in all human cancer types and serves as negative prognostic factor for cancer patients. Thus, Plk1 represents a promising target to study mechanisms underlying cell cycle regulation in cancer versus primary cells and to develop new selective and specific therapeutic strategies. In first studies we applied nucleic acid-based agents (antisense oligonucleotides, siRNAs) to inhibit Plk1 kinase activity in cancer and primary cells. We observed reduced kinase activity, a G2/M arrest, reduced cell proliferation, apoptosis induction, naked centrosomes and impaired mitotic figures, and inhibition of tumor growth in a mouse model. In contrast, primary cells did not show such disturbed mitotic figures or any other signs of cell death. The following studies dealt with kinase inhibitors, which are divided in type I inhibitors, targeting the active conformation, and type II inhibitors, targeting the inactive conformation. Type II inhibitors occupy a hydrophobic pocket with less conserved amino acids leading to higher selectivity. We did in a collaboration a virtual screening using a homology-based structural pharmacophore model of human Plk1 to identify inhibitors against the inactive conformation. We identified one potent inhibitor which inhibits Plk1 activity with an IC50 of 200 pM, leading to decreased cell proliferation, G2/M arrest and apoptosis and abnormal mitotic figures in cancer cells. Notably, SBE13 did not influence activity of other kinases confirming its high selectivity towards the family members Plk2 and Plk3, which are known as tumor suppressor genes. In primary cells SBE13 induced a transient G0/G1 arrest, followed by completely normal cell cycle kinetics and normal cell proliferation, without any signs of cell death, although Plk1 kinase activity was reduced in these primary cells, which underlines the importance of selectivity.

The Plk1 inhibitors have been analyzed in combination with various other anti-cancer drugs: Earlier studies could show the enhanced sensitivity of cancer cells, but not of primary cells towards treatment with anti-neoplastic drugs like Paclitaxel or Herceptin after Plk1 inhibition using siRNAs or ASOs. Additionally, Plk1-specific siRNA is able to enhance the effects of irradiation and revealed the function of Plk1 as a predictive marker. The latest studies identified Plk1 as an enhancer of sensitivity of cancer cells towards treatment with PKCβ inhibitors (Enzastaurin) dependent on their p53 status. Ongoing studies aim at the mechanistic analysis of the interplay between Plk1 and Chk1 inhibition and of the interplay between Plk1 and HDAC inhibition.

In addition, we developed in a collaboration nanoparticle formulations for the targeted delivery of our Plk1 inhibitors. We used Herceptin to target the Her2 receptor and observed reduced Plk1 mRNA and protein, reduced cell proliferation and an induction of apoptosis after application of the Herceptin-conjugated HSA nanoparticles containing ASOs or expression plasmids for shRNAs targeting Plk1. Ongoing studies aim at the development of a nanoparticle formulation for the targeted delivery of SBE13 to cancer cells.

All these studies suggest and confirm the role of Plk1 as a target for anti-cancer therapeutics due to its over-expression in cancer cells, to its important role for cell cycle regulation and due to the fact that Plk1 inhibition using our Plk1-specific siRNA or our Plk1 kinase inhibitor SBE13 induces apoptosis in cancer cells, but leaves the cell cycle and thus cell proliferation of primary cells unimpaired. Taken together, especially our Plk1 inhibitor SBE13 could be confirmed as valuable tool to study the role of Plk1 in cell cycle regulation of cancer cells and primary cells and to develop selective and specific cancer therapeutics



Fakultätskolloquium

Donnerstag, 5. Juni 2014

16.15 Uhr, Hörsaal 5, Carl-Zeiß-Str. 3, Jena


Vortragender: Dr. Hans-Ulrich Peter (Institut für Ökologie, Biologisch-Pharmazeutische Fakultät, FSU Jena)


Titel: "25 Expeditionen zum Rande des ewigen Eises - Forschungen an antarktischen Vögeln und Robben"


Zusammenfassung:
Seit 1983 arbeiten Jenaer Ökologen in der Antarktis, meist auf King George Island, South Shetland Islands. Der Vortrag stellt ausgewählte Ergebnisse der 25 Expeditionen vor, die der Autor  und sein Team (Diplomanden, Masterstudenten, Doktoranden und Mitarbeiter) in den letzten 30 Jahren erhalten haben. Eine wichtige Basis für die Ausweisung von Schutzgebieten ist das GPS-gestützte Langzeitmonitoring der Brutpaarzahlen und des Bruterfolgs von 14 Brutvogelarten und das Vorkommen von 4 Robben-Arten. Diese Daten werden auch herangezogen, um die Auswirkungen des Klimawandel (insbesondere an Pinguinen, aber auch an Pflanzen) zu diskutieren, aber auch die direkten anthropogenen Einflüsse vor Ort zu bewerten.

Neben der angewandten Forschung werden Daten zur Grundlagenforschung, insbesondere zur Ökologie und zum Verhalten von Riesensturmvögeln, Buntfußsturmschwalben und Antarktisseeschwalben vorgestellt. Unter Einsatz moderner Logger-Technik wird das Migrationsverhalten von Raubmöwen untersucht, die im Südwinter teilweise  in arktischen Regionen überwintern.


Fakultätskolloquium

Mittwoch, 16. April 2014

16.15 Uhr, Hörsaal 4, Carl-Zeiß-Str. 3


Vortragender: Prof. Dr.  Reinhard Wetzker (Institut für Molekulare Zellbiologie, CMB-Zentrum für Molekulare Biomedizin, Universitätsklinikum Jena)
 

Titel: "The benefits of stress"

 

Zusammenfassung:

"What does not kill me makes me stronger" the famous dictum of Nietzsche is of formidable relevance in modern biology and medicine. Low doses of physical or mental stress can promote vitality of the affected organism. High stress doses overburden their adaptability and may kill them. In recent years research on adaptive reactions toward external stress developed as one of the pivotal research fields in biology and medicine. New ground has been broken for effective use of the health promoting effects of stress in medicine.

In this context my talk will touch two questions:

- How stress responses of cells and organisms are mediated at the molecular level?

- How to use the growing knowledge on molecular stress reactions in medicine?

Both issues will be underpinned by recent results of our DFG Research Training Group "Molecular Signatures of Adaptive Stress Responses" in Jena and by selected literature data.



Fakultätskolloquium

Donnerstag, 13. März 2014

16 Uhr, HS 7, Carl-Zeißstr. 3


Vortragender: Dr. Martin Kaltenpoth (Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology, Research Group Insect Symbiosis, Jena, Germany)


Titel: A perfect drug deal: Evolution, ecology, and genomics of symbiont-mediated antibiotic defense in solitary wasps

 

Zusammenfassung:

Mutualistic microorganisms play a key role for nutrition or pathogen defense in many animals. A group of solitary digger wasps, the "beewolves" engage in a unique protective symbiosis with Streptomyces bacteria that they cultivate in specialized glands in their antennae and transfer to the larval cocoon. Within the first two weeks after cocoon-spinning by the beewolf larva, the symbionts produce a complex cocktail of antimicrobial compounds, thereby efficiently protecting the larva against fungal and bacterial pathogens during the long period of hibernation in the cocoon. Phylogenetic analyses of hosts and symbionts indicate that the symbiosis already evolved in the Cretaceous. Although the bacteria can be exchanged among host species, beewolves ensure specificity in the association by controlling symbiont transmission, which resulted in the stable and long-term symbiosis with a single clade of symbionts. In the symbionts of the European beewolf, the intimate association with the host has resulted in the accumulation of frameshift mutations in the genome, indicative of ongoing erosion of the genetic material and increasing dependence on the host. The genes involved in antibiotic production, however, remain intact and fully functional. Chemical characterization of the symbiont-produced antibiotic cocktail across beewolf species revealed a high degree of conservation, indicating that the complex mixture serves as an efficient and evolutionarily stable long-term defense. Thus, by means of their symbionts, beewolves employ a strategy comparable to the combination treatment used in human medicine to successfully fend off a broad range of detrimental microorganisms and to prevent the evolution of resistant pathogens.


Fakultätskolloquium

Donnerstag, 16. Januar 2014

18-20 Uhr, Hörsaal 4 in der Carl-Zeiß-Str. 3

Vortragender: PD Dr. Volker Böhm (Institut für Ernährungswissenschaften, AG Bioaktive Pflanzenstoffe, FSU Jena)

Titel:  Schutz vor altersbezogener Makuladegeneration durch Carotinoide?

 Zusammenfassung:

Die Lebenserwartung des Menschen steigt immer weiter. Damit erhöht sich aber auch das Risiko, an unterschiedlichen, degenerativen Leiden zu erkranken. Eine dieser degenerativen Erkrankungen ist die altersbezogenen Makuladegeneration (AMD), für die bisher kaum Therapiemöglichkeiten existieren. In Deutschland ist jeder Vierte mit Alter über 65 Jahre von AMD betroffen. Das gelbe Makulapigment, die "natürliche Sonnenbrille", besteht aus den beiden Carotinoiden Lutein und Zeaxanthin und schützt unser Auge vor Schäden durch energiereiche Strahlung. Unsere Arbeitsgruppe hat gemeinsam mit Kollegen der Augenklinik Jena mehrere Humaninterventionsstudien durchgeführt, um die mögliche präventive Wirkung der Aufnahme dieser Carotinoide aus Nahrungsergänzungsmitteln und Lebensmitteln auf das Makulapigment zu untersuchen. Vielversprechende Ergebnisse ermuntern uns, weiter zu arbeiten an der Entwicklung eines funktionellen Lebensmittels zur AMD-Prävention.



2013


Fakultätskolloquium


Donnerstag, 5. Dezember 2013

18-20 Uhr, Hörsaal 5, Carl-Zeiß-Str. 3

Vortragender: Prof. Johannes Wöstemeyer (Lehrstuhl für Allgemeine Mikrobiologie und Mikrobengenetik, FSU Jena)

Titel: Horizontaler Gentransfer bei Pilzen und anderen frühen Eukaryonten Horizontal Gene Transfer in Fungi and other Ancient Eukaryotes
        (Language depends on participants' preferences)

Zusammenfassung:

Leben ohne Gentransfer gibt es nicht, weil in die  allermeisten Definitionen des Lebens das Kriterium der Weitergabe von Information aufgenommen wurde. Zellen, die sich mitotisch teilen, geben ihre Information ohne nennenswerte Änderungen auf die Tochterzellen weiter.

Das ist etwas langweilig. Interessanter wird es, wenn man die Chance auf Neukombination von Genen aus zwei genetisch etwas verschiedenen Kreuzungstypen im Verlauf der Informationsweitergabe bietet. Das passiert in sexuellen Systemen und wird meist als Normalfall betrachtet,  mindestens bei solchen Organismen, bei denen Vermehrung an Sexualität gebunden ist. So etwas heißt vertikaler Gentransfer, vertikal durch die Zeit von Generation zu Generation nämlich, und ist irgendwie immer noch etwas langweilig.

Interessant werden Gentransfers dann, wenn die Partner in derselben Generation leben, also etwa Gentransfer zwischen Brüdern und Schwestern betreiben oder sogar, wieder innerhalb derselben Generation natürlich, zwischen völlig verschiedenen Arten, Gattungen und ziemlich oft sogar zwischen verschiedenen Reichen oder sogar Domänen der Lebewesen. So etwas heißt horizontaler oder lateraler Gentransfer und hat mich schon immer ganz besonders interessiert.

Bei Bakterien und eventuell bei Viren galt horizontaler Gentransfer schon lange als Normalfall, als es bei Eukaryonten gerade die ersten Berichte dazu gab. Ein sehr schönes und hoch effizientes System, das im Labor Transferraten im Prozentbereich erlaubt, bezogen auf die in einer Petri-Schale gebildeten Nachkommen, ist der Transfer von Genen aus dem Pilz Parasitella parasitica auf seine Wirtsorganismen. Wegen des ziemlich breiten Wirtsbereichs dieses Pilz-pathogenen Pilzes kann man das Parasitella-System gut als Drehscheibe für die Verteilung von Genen interpretieren. Mit den molekularen Besonderheiten dieses Systems befasst sich dieses Kolloquium.

Das Gentransfersystem der Parasitella haben wir seinerzeit gefunden, weil wir mit einem einfachen aber gezielten genetischen Ansatz danach gesucht haben. Der Verdacht auf horizontalen Gentransfer lag nahe, weil im Verlauf der Infektion ein plasmatisches Kontinuum zwischen Wirt und Parasit entsteht, das unvermeidbar den Tausch von Zellkernen zur Folge hat.

Es gibt in der Natur jedoch mehr als das. Dort, wo Zellen andere Zellen mit dem Ziel der Ernährung aufnehmen, kann man ähnliche genetische Folgen vermuten. Ob dies tatsächlich stimmt, werden wir zukünftig studieren. Für dieses Ziel haben wir uns einem einzelligen Organismus zugewandt, der Bakterien frisst und verdaut. Wir arbeiten mit dem Ciliaten Tetrahymena pyriformis, den wir mit gentechnisch etwas modifizierten Escherichia coli-Zellen füttern. Der Trick besteht diesmal darin, dass von der engen Symbiose der Partner beide profitieren. Bis hierhin funktioniert der experimentelle Ansatz schon jetzt: Escherichia coli ist in der Lage, sich unter selektiven Bedingungen im Plasma der Tetrahymena zu etablieren. Ob auch Gentransfers möglich sind, wissen wir nicht. Wir arbeiten daran, in erfreulicher Eintracht zwischen experimenteller Mikrobiologie, Zoologie und Bioinformatik.


Summary:

Life depends necessarily on gene transfer, as most definitions of life include the criterium of  information transmission. Mitotically dividing cells pass on information to daughter cells without considerable changes.

This is somewhat boring. Gene transfer becomes more interesting, if we provide the chance for recombination between genes from genetically distinguishable mating types during transmission of  information. This happens in sexual systems and is regarded as the normal situation, at least in organisms that link propagation with sexuality. This is normally addressed as vertical gene tansfer, vertical through time over subsequent generations. Somehow, this is still not really exciting

Gene transfers become much more attractive, if both partners share the same generation. Maybe they exchange genes between brothers and sisters or, of course again within a given generation, between different species, genera and pretty often between different kingdoms and even domains oft he living world. These events are referred to as horizontal or lateral gene transfer and fascinated me throughout my scientific life.

Horizontal gene transfer was regarded as the the normal situation in bacteria and maybe in viruses, long before the first reports for eukaryotes were taken seriously. A nice and highly efficient system, allowing transfer rates in the laboratory in the percentage range in relation to the total number of progeny in a Petri dish, is the transfer of genes from the mould Parasitella parasitica to its host organisms. Due to the broad host range of this fungus-parasitic fungus, the Parasitella-System may be interpreted as a turntable for distributing genes. The colloquium will deal with the molecular biology of this system.

We found the Parasitella system, because we searched for it by a simple but intentionally focussed genetic approach. Horizontal gene transfer nearly suggested itself, because infection is necessarily accompanied by formation of a cytoplasmic continuum between host and parasite, leading inevitably tot he transfer of nuclei.

In nature, there is more than this. Wherever cells take up other cells for nutritional purposes, similar genetic consequences may be assumed. We started experiments in ordert o find out, whether this holds true. Towards this goal, we are recently getting involved with a unicellular organism that devours and digests bacteria. We are working with the ciliate Tetrahymena pyriformis that we feed with conveniently modified Escherichia coli cells. The genetic trick, underlying these experiments, relies on the special experimental setup, where both partners profit from close symbiosis. Until this stage, the experimental approach works nicely: Under selective conditions, Escherichia coli is established permanently in the cytoplasm of the ciliate, and the ciliate can survive exclusively if it harbours the bacterium. We do not know, if this system implies gene transfer events. We are working on this important point, in close co-operation between experimental microbiology, zoology and bioinformatics.



Fakultätskolloquium

Donnerstag, 1. August 2013

16.15 Uhr, HS 7, Carl-Zeiß-Str. 3

Vortragender: Prof. David Heckel (Max-Planck-Institut für Chemische Ökologie, Jena)

Titel: Insect-bacterial Coevolutionary interactions on two time scales: The case of Bacillus thuringiensis

Zusammenfassung:

Certain strains of the gram-positive soil-dwelling bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) produce pore-forming toxins that kill insect larvae and nematodes that ingest them, by attacking targets in the midgut. A signature of this long-term coevolutionary interaction between prokaryotes and eukaryotes can be seen in bacterial strategies to diversify and combine different toxins, and in insect strategies to evade or degrade them. Some of these Bt toxins are now widely used to control insect pests of human agriculture and human health, presenting the opportunity to examine this coevolutionary interaction on a much shorter timescale. In fact, similar to the situation with chemical insecticides, evolution of Bt resistance by the target pests increasingly threatens their sustainable use in agriculture. We describe case studies of recently-evolved Bt resistance in insects to show how microevolutionary steps, some including humans as agents, can inform our understanding of the macroevolutionary patterns resulting from the toxin arms race.

Fakultätskolloquium


Donnerstag, den 11. Juli 2013

16.15 Uhr, HS 7, Carl-Zeiß-Str. 3

Vortragende: Dana Kralisch (FSU Jena, Institut für Pharmazie)

Titel "Green process and material design: interdisciplinary challenge coupling chemistry, biology, pharmacy and engineering"

Zusammenfassung:

A brief overview about the research activities of the Kralisch group in cooperation with colleagues from different disciplines will be given. Special focus of the presentation will be on the transfer of innovative research results to (bio-based) product development and technical realization. Critical process evaluation, decision support for sustainable concepts, material design and process scale-up of continuously running processes are keywords, which will be discussed on specific examples such as biodiesel and bacterial nanocellulose (BNC) generation. Finally, the potential of BNC as innovative material for medical and pharmaceutical applications will be highlighted.


Fakultätskolloquium

Donnerstag, den 20. Juni 2013

16.15 Uhr, HS 7, Carl-Zeiß-Str. 3

Vortragender: Prof. Dr. Nico Eisenhauer (FSU Jena, Institut fuer Ökologie)


Titel: Soil biodiversity: too redundant to be true?

Zusammenfassung:

The causes and consequences of soil biodiversity are highly disputed, and the enormous diversity of soil biota is a great riddle in ecology. In this talk I will focus on the effects and responses of soil organisms in the context of several long-term plant biodiversity experiments. In contrast to current consensus, recent studies suggest that plant identity and diversity has significant effects on the structure and functioning of soil food webs, questioning the assumption of high functional redundancy belowground. In turn, I will present recent results indicating that soil biodiversity, in particularly that of decomposers, has profound impacts on various ecosystem functions and on ecosystem multifunctionality. In sum, my research shows that biodiversity above and below the ground co-determines the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems.


Fakultätstag


Dienstag, den 28. Mai 2013

ab 16.15 Uhr, Aula im Universitätshauptgebäude

Fachvorträge:

Prof. Ina Bergheim (Lehrbereich Modellsysteme molekularer Ernährungsforschung)

Thema: Anderes Geschlecht, andere Ernährung? Rolle von Ernährung und Geschlecht in der Entstehung von Erkrankungen



Juniorprof. Christoph Kaleta (Theoretische Systembiologie am Lehrstuhl Bioinformatik)

Thema: Überleben des Schnellsten - Identifikation zeitoptimaler Kontrollstrategien für Reaktionswege in Prokaryoten



Fakultätskolloquium


Mittwoch, den 16. Januar 2013

16.15 Uhr, HS 7, Carl-Zeiß-Str. 3

Vortragender: Prof. Dr. Lenhard Rudolph (new director of the Fritz Lipmann Institute, Jena)

Titel: Molecular mechanisms of stem cell aging

Zusammenfassung:

The main focus of our research is on molecular mechanisms of stem cell aging. Stem cells are present in most adult mammalian tissues and organs and contribute to lifelong maintenance and repair of tissues and organs. In addition, stem cells can represent the cell type of origin of cancer formation. There is emerging evidence that aging alters the self-renewal and the functional capacity of adult stem cells. Understanding the molecular causes of stem cell aging will enable the development of future therapies aiming to improve organ homeostasis and regenerative capacities during aging and to decrease the risk of age-related cancer formation. In my talk, I will present data on DNA damage checkpoint induction in stem cells an its role in aging and cancer.

 
         

       2012

Fakultätskolloquium

Donnerstag, den 6. Dezember 2012

18.00 Uhr (s.t.), HS 3, Carl-Zeiß-Str. 3

Vortragender: Prof. Dr. Ian T. Baldwin (MPI Jena)

Thema: Training Genome-Enabled Field Biologists and understanding what is required for plants to survive in the real world.

Zusammenfassung:

The MPI for Chemical Ecology in Jena was founded more than 15 years ago, and this will be one of a series of lectures to provide an overview of the research that has been going on at the institute. IanBaldwin, director of the Department of Molecular Ecology, will describe a research/training program for Genome-Enabled Field Biologists that he has established in his department, and summarize the last decade of research on how a native tobacco plant, Nicotiana attenuata, copes with environmental stresses, such as herbivore attack. The research program is singular in that it uses a nature preserve to understand gene function in a native organism.  While the research relies heavily on cutting edge methods in analytical chemistry, bioinformatics, plant and microbial molecular biology, and field ecology, the lecture will be targeted at the larger issues involved in this research and hence should be interesting to a broad audience.



Fakultätskolloquium

Mittwoch, den 17. Oktober 2012

18.00 Uhr (s.t.)- 20.00 Uhr, Hörsaal 5, Carl-Zeiß-Str.3

Gemeinsame Veranstaltung mit dem Microbial Communication Colloquium (MiCoCo)


Vortragender: Prof. Dr.  Peter Zipfel (HKI Jena)

Thema: Infektionen und Erkrankungen: Was uns die pathogene Hefe C. albicans über die Pathologie von menschlichen Krankheiten lehrt

Zusammenfassung:

Komplement als Teil der angeborenen Immunität ist ein evolutionär konserviertes Immunsystem, das eine zentrale Rolle bei der Homeostase darstellt und das für die Erkennung und Eliminierung von infektiösen Erregern verantwortlich ist. Um in einem immunkompetenten Wirt zu überleben haben pathogene Erreger, wie die humanpathogene Hefe Candida albicans Abwehrstrategien entwickelt mit denen diese Erreger die Immunerkennung des Wirtes blockieren und überwinden. Die molekularen Prinzipien dieser Immunabwehr sind erstaunlicherweise sehr verwandt mit den Schutzmechanismen von menschlichen Zellen. Ein Versagen des Immunschutzes führt zu Erkrankungen. Somit trägt die Kenntnis der Immunevasionstrategien von pathogenen Erregern zum molekularen Verständnis der Immunbiologie bei und hilft aber auch die Pathophysiologie von menschlichen Erkrankungen zu verstehen. Eine deregulierte Komplementaktivierung führt zu Nierenerkrankungen, wie dem hämolytisch-urämischen Syndrom (HUS), der membranoproliferativen Glomerulonephritis (MPGN) und zur Erblindung in Form der altersabhängigen Makuladegeneration. Mit diesem Ansatz werden neue diagnostische Verfahren und neue Therapien für diese schweren Krankheiten etabliert. 

 
 



Fakultätskolloquium

Donnerstag, den 12. Juli 2012

18.00 Uhr (s.t.), Hörsaal 4, Carl-Zeiß-Str.3


Vortragender: Prof. Dr.  Severin Sasso (Institut für Allgemeine Botanik und Pflanzenphysiologie, FSU Jena)

Thema:  A genomic perspective on secondary metabolism in microalgae


Zusammenfassung:

Secondary metabolism is often involved in the interaction of an organism with its biotic or abiotic environment. Microorganisms and plants, including algae, are the most prolific producers of natural products (secondary metabolites) such as isoprenoids, phenolic compounds or polyketides. Compared to macroalgae, fewer natural products have been isolated from microalgae, which provide the opportunity of obtaining sufficient and well-defined biological material from laboratory cultures. Growing information from completely sequenced genomes and continuously improving genetic methods support the study of microalgal secondary metabolism. Genomic data help to delineate biosynthetic routes to known compounds, but also give hints for the existence of unknown compounds. A survey of available genome sequences from some 20 microalgae suggests that their biosynthetic potential is underestimated and more natural products remain to be discovered.


   

      Festveranstaltung

anläßlich des 80. Geburtstages von

Herrn Prof. Dr. Eberhard Müller                                                                                                                                                    

am Donnerstag, den 21. Juni 2012
18:00 Uhr c. t., Großer Hörsaal, Erbertstr. 1

Programm

Laudatio
für Prof. Dr. Eberhard Müller
als Gründungsdekan
der Biologisch-Pharmazeutischen Fakultät
der Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena

Prof. Dr. Frank Hellwig

Festvortrag
Prof. Dr. Friedrich-Wilhelm Bentrup
(Universität Salzburg)
"Eberhard Müller zum 80sten-Anmerkungen eines Weggefährten"

Erinnerung und Dank
Prof. Dr. Eberhard Müller
"Ein erfülltes Leben und Dank an die Menschen, die dazu beigetragen haben"

Musikalischer Ausklang

Kleiner Empfang im Foyer des Phyletischen Museums


 Einladung als pdf-Datei


Fakultätskolloquium


Mittwoch, den 30. Mai 2012

18.00 Uhr (s.t.)  im HS 4, Carl-Zeiß-Str. 3


Vortragender: Prof. Dr.  Alfred Fahr (Institut für Pharmazie, FSU Jena)

Thema:  "Liposomen in den Lebenswissenschaften"


Zusammenfassung:

Als Alec Bangham 1967 zum ersten Mal seine Pionierarbeiten über Liposomen vorstellte, ergaben sich -wie dies bei neuen Dingen öfters geschieht- stark überhöhte Erwartungen, besonders in Pharmazie und Medizin. So wurde gleich euphorisch vorhergesagt, dass  Liposomen aus z.B. Erythrozytenmembranbestandteilen für "ewig" im Blut kreisen würden und dabei Arzneistoffe abgeben könnten.

Die darauffolgende Enttäuschung wuchs sich zu einer fulminanten Depression aus: neben der gemessenen kurzen Überlebenszeit dieser ersten Liposomen im Blut wurden auch noch die gewiss vorhandene Instabilität der Liposomen im Blut als Totschlagargument angebracht und so verschwanden die Liposomen erst einmal für Jahre in den biophysikalischen Experimentierstuben als "esoterische" Modellmembransysteme.

Erst allmählich wurde auch mittels dieser Studien klar, dass einfach noch zu wenig über die Mechanismen der Interaktion von Liposomenmembran, Arzneistoff und Körper (ebenfalls aus Membranen bestehend….) bekannt war.  Heute gibt es sehr erfolgreiche Arzneimittel, die nur mittels des eingesetzten Liposomenträgersystems funktionieren und daraus auch resultierend viel mehr Wissen über die Funktion biologischer Membranen.

Warum sind nun liposomenbasierte Trägersysteme in der Pharmazie & Medizin so erfolgreich? Das soll dieses Fakultätskolloquium anhand der eigenen Arbeiten mit Liposomen zeigen, wobei auch bei uns durchaus esoterische Modellmembransysteme dazugehören, z.B. als Untersuchungsobjekt für die Simulation der Entstehung der ersten Zelle, also der Lebenswissenschaft schlechthin.

Zusammenfassung als pdf-Datei



Festveranstaltung

Die Festveranstaltung der Biologisch-Pharmazeutischen Fakultät findet

am 23. April 2012 um 16.15 Uhr in der Aula

der Friedrich-Schiller-Universität statt.

Das Programm der Veranstaltung sehen Sie hier:

http://pinguin.biologie.uni-jena.de/fakultaet/EinladungFestveranstaltung.pdf


Fakultätskolloquium


Donnerstag, den 19. Januar 2012

18.00 Uhr (s.t.) im Hörsaal 6, Carl-Zeiß-Str. 3


Vortragende: Prof. Dr. Dagmar Fischer (Pharmazeutische Technologie, FSU Jena)

Thema:  Polymere Nanosysteme in Therapie und Diagnostik: Ein alter Hut?


Zusammenfassung:

Die Zahl der neusynthetisierten Polymere und der daraus entwickelten Nanosysteme für pharmazeutische und medizinische Anwendungen steigt stetig und rasant. Gezielt steuerbare Eigenschaften, eine Vielzahl möglicher struktureller Modifikationen und die Möglichkeit zur Multifunktionalität machen diese Systeme sowohl in der Diagnostik als auch als Drug Delivery-Systeme insbesondere für innovative Wirkstoffe wie Proteine, Peptide und Nukleinsäuren interessant. Allerdings fehlen für diese Vielzahl von Nanomaterialien häufig systematische Untersuchungen zu Potentialen und Risiken, um Struktur-Aktivitäts-Beziehungen und Nutzen-Risiko-Anwendungen beschreiben zu können.

Vorgestellt werden die Herstellung und Anwendung verschiedener Nanosysteme wie kompakte Nanopartikel in Therapie und Diagnostik (NanoMed), Polyplexe zur Gentherapie (NanoConSens) und Nanofasern als Wirkstoffträger (NanocellCare). Sie wurden systematisch physikochemisch, biopharmazeutisch und toxikologisch untersucht. Basierend auf Formulierungseigenschaften, Stabilität, Toxizität, intrazellulärer Prozessierung und Effizienz wurden strukturelle Parameter identifiziert, die für die gezielte Wirkstofffreisetzung und Wechselwirkung mit Zellen und Blutbestandteilen von entscheidender Bedeutung sind. Außerdem erlauben sie die gezielte Herstellung neuer Polymere und Drug Delivery-Trägersysteme. Dabei wurden insbesondere biologische Eigenschaften zum Transport von Wirkstoffen an endothelialen Barrieren wie Blut-Hirn-Schranke, peripheres und inflammatorisches Endothel, sowie an Tumoren und der Haut untersucht. Insgesamt betrachtet hat sich die Entwicklung von polymerbasierten Nanosystemen zu komplexen Korrelationen von Nutzen, Risiken und Effizienzen entwickelt, welche die Möglichkeit geben, schneller und gezielter als bisher neue Drug Delivery-Systeme zu entwickeln.


2011


Fakultätskolloquium

Donnerstag, den 15. Dezember  2011

18.00 Uhr (s.t.) im Hörsaal 5, Carl-Zeiß-Str. 3


Vortragender: Prof. Dr. Dirk Hoffmeister (Pharmazeutische Biologie, FSU Jena)

Thema: Ein Pilz, bitte: Naturstoff-Forschung in der Jenaer Pharmazeutischen Biologie


Zusammenfassung:

Viele Mikroorganismen sind zu einem ausgeprägten Sekundärstoffwechsel befähigt. Dieser bringt kleine, oft stark funktionalisierte Moleküle hervor, die sich nicht selten durch ihre Bioaktivität auszeichnen. Diese Naturstoffe sind einerseits für die Pharmazie relevant, da sie als Quelle und strukturelle Inspiration für neue Wirkstoffe dienen oder aber als Toxine die Gesundheit des Menschen gefährden können. Tatsächlich reicht die Bedeutung der Naturstoff-Forschung aber weit über die Pharmazie hinaus und umfasst nicht zuletzt auch pflanzenpathologische und chemisch-ökologische Aspekte. Der Vortrag stellt einige aktuelle Forschungsprojekte in der Jenaer Pharmazeutischen Biologie vor, die die methodische und inhaltliche Vielschichtigkeit der mikrobiellen Naturstoff-Forschung illustrieren sollen. Die vorgestellten Naturstoff-Produzenten reichen dabei vom Modellorganismus Aspergillus nidulans bis hin zum Hausschwamm Serpula lacrymans.

Ankündigung als PDF-Datei: http://www.jcb-jena.de/wp-content/uploads/2011/11/Fak_Kolloquium_151211s.pdf



Fakultätskolloquium


Mittwoch, den 16. November  2011

18.00 Uhr (s.t.) im Hörsaal 4, Carl-Zeiß-Str. 3


Vortragender: Prof. Dr. Stefan Schuster (Lehrstuhl Bioinformatik, FSU Jena)

Thema: Road Games in Metabolism


Zusammenfassung:

The network of reactions in metabolism is even more complex than a roadmap, due to the presence if bi- und multimolecular reactions. The concept of biochemical pathway can be formalized by elementary modes. These are defined as miminal sets of enzymes that can operate at steady state with all irreversible reactions used in the correct direction [1]. Elementary-modes analysis is a powerful method for detecting all potential pathways in a metabolic network and computing the associated molar yields. It has been applied successfully to a plethora of bacterial, fungal, plant and animal metabolic networks. For example, it was used for showing in silico that, in principle, fatty acids can be converted into glucose in humans on very entangled pathways via acetone [2].

Metabolic pathways can be interpreted as different strategies of organisms. Thus, methods from evolutionary game theory can be employed [3]. Here, the basic concepts of game theory such as the Nash equilibrium are explained by illustrative examples (not only from Biology). Then, game theory is applied to two examples from biochemistry. The first concerns the choice between pathways with low molar yield, but high rate and with high yield, but low rate [3, 4]. This is of importance, for example, in the Warburg effect in tumour cells. The second example concerns the secretion of extracellular enzymes such as cellulase, which is of biotechnological relevance in the context of biofuel production [5].

 

References

[1] S. Schuster, D.A. Fell, T. Dandekar: Nature Biotechnol. 18 (2000) 326-332.

[2] C. Kaleta, L.F. de Figueiredo, S. Werner, R. Guthke, M. Ristow, S. Schuster. PLoS Comp. Biol. 7 (2011) e1002116.

[3] T. Pfeiffer, S. Schuster. Trends Biochem. Sci. 30 (2005) 20-25.

[4] E. Ruppin, J.A. Papin, L.F. de Figueiredo, S. Schuster: Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 21 (2010) 502-510.

[5] S. Schuster, J.U. Kreft, N. Brenner, F. Wessely, G. Theißen, E. Ruppin, A. Schroeter: Biotechnol. J. 5 (2010) 751-758.



Fakultätskolloquium

Donnerstag, den 20. Oktober  2011
18:00 (s.t.), HS 4, Carl-Zeiß-Str. 3

Vortragender: Prof. Dr. Günter Theissen (Lehrstuhl Genetik, FSU Jena)

Thema: Development of floral organ identity: MADS get physical!

Zusammenfassung:

The identity of the different floral organs is specified during plant development by different multimeric complexes of MIKC-type MADS-domain proteins. By forming what we call 'floral quartets' these complexes of transcription factors orchestrate the activity of organ-specific sets of target genes. How target gene specificity is achieved remains elusive, however, because the different MIKC-type proteins appear to bind to very similar stretches of DNA termed CArG-boxes (sequences highly similar to 5'-CC(A/T)6GG-3'). Currently genome-wide binding studies of MIKC-type proteins are intensively used to identify potential target genes. Such 'top-down approaches' will provide valuable information about the principles of target site selection. For a comprehensive understanding of target site recognition, however, also a quantitative understanding of the molecular interactions involved is required. Therefore, we use a complementary 'bottom-up approach' that tries to understand target gene specificity by investigating the protein-DNA and protein-protein interactions during floral quartet formation in vitro and in vivo, using the toolkit of molecular biophysics, ranging from simple procedures such as Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assays (EMSA) to more sophisticated quantitative methods such as Surface Plasmon Resonance. For example, using synthetic DNA fragments and purified recombinant proteins we investigate to what extent the binding of floral homeotic proteins to CArG-boxes is affected by the shape of the DNA, the nucleotide sequence, and the distance and orientation of CArG-boxes. We are especially interested in the contribution of cooperative interactions to floral quartet formation, and are currently determining how cooperativity depends on the structure of a stretch of MIKC-type proteins termed 'K-domain'. Taken together, the top-down and bottom-up approaches may provide us with a much more sophisticated understanding of flower development than any single approach alone.

 

Einladung zum Fakultätskolloquium am 20. Oktober als pdf



Fakultätskolloquium

Donnerstag, den 30. Juni  2011
18:00 (s.t.), HS 6, Carl-Zeiß-Str. 3

Vortragende: Prof. Dr. Erika Kothe (Institut für Mikrobiologie, FSU Jena)

Thema: What is an attractive fungus?

Zusammenfassung:

Fungi have fascinated mankind for centuries. And they have attracted biologists, as well. Linneus, for example, saw the germination tubes emerging from spores and thus clumped the fungi together with nematodes, assuming that they had a worm-like stage in their life cycle. They form mushrooms, which might emerge after a rain-fall in almost no time, and they can form fairy rings of large extensions making a fungus one of the oldest, the heaviest and the largest living beings on earth. But they also are systems with importance in biotechnology and are making for good model systems in cell biology. The mushroom forming wood rot Schizophyllum commune has served as a model for sexual interactions and the recent genome sequence now allows for explanation of mate attraction and sexual development in this basidiomycete. The mate interaction between the more than 23,000 different sexes occurring in nature is governed by to mating type loci, A and B. Six homeodomain transcription factor encoding genes in A, the products of which can form heterodimer pairs if combined between mates carrying different allelic specificities, induce a phenotype that is easily distinguished macroscopically. If forced by suitable auxotrophy marker combination, the A-regulated development shows the formation of clamp cells which, however, do not fuse to allow formation of the dikaryotic state in the subterminal hyphae. This clamp fusion is dependent on the B-pathway of development, which is regulated by recognition of non-self pheromones inducing several signal transduction cascades including MAPK and Ras signalling. Another feature under control of mating type genes is a fast nuclear migration which is initiated in matings of strains with different B loci specificities. For this fast nuclear exchange between mates, transport along microtubules is necessary and thus, dynein as the minus-end directed motor protein is involved. In contrast to all other kingdoms within the eukaryotes, the basidioymcetes contain split genes coding for dynein heavy chain. In evolution, this two-partite protein encoded by two linked, separate genes occurred twice independently. The function of this change toward dynein heavy chain being formed by two proteins is investigated. In addition, the genome now revealed additional potential regulatory pathways which will be discussed and the attraction between mates is shown as an example for fungi providing good phenotypical evidence for general eukaryotic regulatory cascades inducing development.


Fakultätskolloquium

Donnerstag, den 19. Mai 2011
17:00 (c.t.), Hörsal 5, Carl-Zeiß-Str. 3

Vortragender: Prof. Dr. Lennart Olsson, (Professur für Spezielle Zoologie, FSU Jena)

Thema: The origin of evolutionary novelties in amphibian head development

Zusammenfassung:

The origin of evolutionary novelties is a long-standing issue in evolutionary biology. Changes in developmental processes and mechanisms must underlie novel anatomical structures, but exactly how this works is one of the major questions addressed by evolutionary developmental biology, a.k.a. EvoDevo. One important aspect that we focus on in my lab is "Where do the cells come from?" that make a novel structure. We use fate mapping of cells from embryonic anlagen to answer this question, either by injecting fluorescent markers or by using GFP-transgenic donors and transplantation by microsurgery in the early embryo. Amphibian embryos are ideal for this type of work, as they lay large eggs that develop outside of the mother (in most cases), and survive microsurgery well. Through fate mapping in different species we can document how cell migration pathways and the timing of developmental events have changed during evolution. Our focus is on the head-neck region and on comparisons spanning the water-land transition, using lungfishes in comparison to amphibians. In addition to changes in cell migration and fate, novel structures must receive information directing and stabilizing their morphogenesis. I will talk about our work on the importance of FoxN3 for the development of unique larval head skeletal structures in frog tadpoles. For example, knock-down of FoxN3 function has been shown to remove several unique larval structures only found in frog tadpoles, such as the elaborate, filigreed structure of the gill basket necessary for filter feeding, and the extra mouth structures present as unique novelties in frog tadpoles and especially well developed in tadpoles grazing algae. How did FoxN3, or the genetic network that is it part of, gain this new function? Based on such detailed empirical data, it should be possible to develop a general model for the evolution of anatomical novelties, a long-term goal of my research. I will also briefly mention some of the other on-going projects in the laboratory, on e.g. the evolution of life-history modes in salamanders and frogs, and on the ontogeny and phylogeny of cranial muscles in teleost fishes.


Version der Einladung zum Herunterladen (pdf): http://www.jcb-jena.de/wp-content/uploads/2011/05/Fak_Koll_190511.pdf


Antrittsvorlesung


Donnerstag, den 28. April 2011
18:00 (c.t.), Aula der Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, Fürstengraben 1

Vortragender: Prof. Dr. Tilman Grune (Lehrstuhl für Ernährungstoxikologie, FSU Jena)

Thema: Vom Altern-was Menschen und Proteine gemeinsam haben und wie man durch Ernährung Einfluss nehmen kann.

Im Anschluss an die Antrittsvorlesung findet ein Empfang im Innenhof des Universitätshauptgebäudes statt.


Fakultätskolloquium



Dienstag, 26. Januar 2011
18:00 (s.t.), Hörsaal 6, Carl-Zeiss-Str. 3

Vortragende: Prof. Dr. Berit Jungnickel (Professur für Zellbiologie, FSU Jena)

Thema: Mechanism and regulation of somatic hypermutation

Zusammenfassung:
In order to fight the plethora of pathogens in our environment, our immune system needs sophisticated means to produce antibodies that  optimally fit the task at hand. An initial repertoire assembled by recombination of gene modules is further diversified during acute infections by targeted mutagenesis, termed somatic hypermutation. During this process, mutations are introduced specifically into the antibody genes at a rate exceeding spontaneous mutation rates by 6 orders of magnitude.
We are interested in studying the processes that damage the DNA during somatic hypermutation, as well as in the mechanisms that repair the damage in an error-prone manner to cause mutations. Also, we investigate regulation and deregulation of the balance between DNA damage and DNA repair, in order to understand how aberrant somatic hypermutation contributes to the pathogenesis of lymphoma and leukemia.


Fakultätskolloquium

Dezember 2010

Mittwoch, 15. Dezember 2010, 18:00 s.t.
Hörsaal 9, Carl-Zeiß-Straße 3

Vortragender: Prof. Dr. Oliver Werz (Lehrstuhl für Pharmazeutische/Medizinische Chemie, FSU Jena)

Thema: Inflammation: Gender aspects and novel drugs


Zusammenfassung:

Various inflammatory diseases disproportionately affect one gender. Thus, women suffer more often from asthma, Alzheimer's disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and many autoimmune diseases. However, the biochemical mechanisms underlying these gender differences are largely unknown. We recently revealed a novel testosterone-mediated pathway that may provide a molecular basis for these discrepancies in inflammation between men and women. Interestingly these pathophysiological gender differences also affect the responses towards pharmacological inhibitors, calling for a "gender-tailored therapy".




Version der Einladung zum Herunterladen (pdf):
http://www.jcb-jena.de/wp-content/uploads/2011/01/Fak_Kolloquium_260111.pdf